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Table of Contents
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 72-75

Successful use of pre-class videos from a pharmacy course for pre-class learning in a biomedical graduate course


1 UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, UNC Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
2 College of Education, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas, USA

Date of Submission01-Feb-2022
Date of Acceptance14-May-2022
Date of Web Publication09-Sep-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jacqueline E McLaughlin
UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/EHP.EHP_4_22

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Although flipped learning has experienced significant uptake within pharmacy schools, its use within related doctoral graduate programs is not well described or understood. Materials and Methods: Thirteen pre-class videos originally created for a Doctor of Pharmacy class were implemented as pre-class learning for a related Doctor of Philosophy class. In the Fall 2018 and Fall 2019, students completed a survey about their experiences, and faculty provided narrative feedback about their experiences. Results: Pre-class videos were positively rated by students, with most agreeing that they “prepared me for the content or activities in the corresponding class” (n = 16, 94.1%). Most agreed that doctoral courses “taught in a classroom should offer pre-recorded lectures” (n = 13, 76.5%). No significant differences were found by year or gender. Faculty subsequently increased their use of pre-class videos. Conclusions: This study is a first step toward exploring strategies for leveraging curriculum materials in flipped classrooms at schools offering multiple degree programs.

Keywords: Drug delivery, education technology, flipped learning, graduate education, pharmaceutical sciences


How to cite this article:
McLaughlin JE, Greene J, Anselmo AC, Olsen AA, Jay M, Hingtgen S. Successful use of pre-class videos from a pharmacy course for pre-class learning in a biomedical graduate course. Educ Health Prof 2022;5:72-5

How to cite this URL:
McLaughlin JE, Greene J, Anselmo AC, Olsen AA, Jay M, Hingtgen S. Successful use of pre-class videos from a pharmacy course for pre-class learning in a biomedical graduate course. Educ Health Prof [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Sep 28];5:72-5. Available from: https://www.ehpjournal.com/text.asp?2022/5/2/72/355838




  Introduction Top


In recent years, descriptions and research about flipped classrooms have permeated health profession’s education. Research consistently suggests that the flipped classroom model, a pedagogical approach in which students learn basic concepts pre-class and use applied, higher order thinking during class, can enhance student learning and satisfaction.[1],[2] Despite significant uptake, research describing flipped learning within related doctoral graduate programs is limited.[3],[4]

Considerable resources are needed to design and implement the flipped model. Preparation time is one of the most common challenges, taking nearly six times longer than traditional course preparation.[1],[5] Financially, pre-class videos require access to software and related support that enable the digitization of materials using audiovisual equipment for recording and editing.[6] As such, identifying strategies for effectively managing the resource demands of a flipped design is critical for enabling educators to successfully leverage this approach.

When the University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy launched its transformed Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) in 2015, significant resources were placed on creating pre-class learning materials that prepared students for higher-order applied learning during class.[7] In 2018, pre-class videos from the PharmD Pharmaceutics courses were utilized as pre-class material for the School’s Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)-level Advances in Drug Delivery course. The purpose of this study was to explore the reuse of the PharmD pre-class videos with attention to doctoral student experiences and acceptance of the pre-class videos. This exploratory work addresses two apparent gaps in the literature: (1) the lack of flipped classroom descriptions for biomedical graduate education; and (2) the need for strategies that reduce the resource burden of creating flipped learning materials.


  Materials and Methods Top


The Pharmaceutics pre-class videos were designed for PharmD students to obtain foundational content prior to class. For each class, learning objectives were written using Bloom’s Taxonomy; objectives in the remembering and understanding categories were the focus of pre-class videos based on the criteria that (1) students can accomplish this learning independently, and (2) students must learn this foundational knowledge before engaging in higher order active learning during class.[8] For video development, each Pharmaceutics instructor created a slideshow presentation and video script. To promote reusability of videos, instructors were asked to avoid content that may date the video or reference specific assignments or class sessions. Materials were reviewed and edited by a member of an instructional design team and videos were created using a microphone and screen recording software.

Thirteen pre-class PharmD Pharmaceutics videos were utilized in the PhD-level course Advances in Drug Delivery offered by the School’s Division of Pharmacoengineering and Molecular Pharmaceutics.. Videos were approximately 15–30 min in length and included topics such as “Oral Drug Formulations” and “Mechanisms of Absorption and Barriers to Drug Delivery.” Three course instructors also taught in the PharmD Pharmaceutics course. No modifications were made to the Pharmaceutics videos before their use in PhD course; however, corresponding in-class activities were modified to align with the objectives of the PhD course.

On the first and last class sessions of the Fall 2018 and Fall 2019 semesters, PhD students completed an eight-item paper survey about their perceptions of pre-class videos and readings. Seven items were scored on a 4-point scale from 1 = Strongly Disagree to 4 = Strongly Agree or 1 = Never to 4 = Always. One item asked students to select a preferred format for pre-class material: pre-recorded lecture, assigned reading from a textbook, or assigned reading from an article. On the post-class survey, an additional item solicited open-text reasons for choosing their preferred method for pre-class material.

Data are described using frequency (percent). Wilcoxon test was used to examine differences in responses for the pre- and post-class survey, whereas Mann–Whitney U was used to examine differences by year and gender with Fisher’s exact test as needed. Open coding thematic analysis was utilized by one investigator to analyze open-text comments. This study was reviewed and determined to be exempt by the University of North Carolina institutional review board.


  Results Top


Most students completed the surveys (n = 17, 89.5% response rate). Eleven participants (57.9%) were female. No significant differences were found between pre-class and post-class surveys, or by year or gender. For three students (17.7%), this was their first experience with pre-class videos. All students completed readings (n = 17, 100%) and watched the videos before class (n = 17, 100%) at least sometimes, with most reading (n = 10, 58.8%) and watching videos (n = 11, 64.7%) frequently or always. Pre-class videos were positively rated by students, with most agreeing or strongly agreeing that they “prepared me for the content or activities in the corresponding class” (n = 16, 94.1%), and “greatly enhance my learning” (n = 14, 82.4%) [Table 1].
Table 1: Graduate student perceptions of pre-class PharmD videos used within a graduate biomedical science course (N = 17)

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At the end of the course, most students (n = 15, 88.2%) preferred pre-class videos over reading assigned text. In the open-text prompt about their preference, students generally commented on the focus of the material (“Pre-recorded lectures provide a focused and succinct overview”; “having a person explain the basics first helps give background before I try to read”), ease of understanding the information (“it’s an easy way to consume information”; “it’s easy to follow”), and preference for visual learning (“recorded lectures help with how I learn material”; “I’m more of a visual learner”). Students indicating a preference for reading text specifically noted the value of articles that highlighted “interesting things our peers are doing in our field.” Most students agreed or strongly agreed that PhD courses that are “taught in a classroom should offer pre-recorded lectures” (n = 13, 76.5%).


  Discussion Top


Understanding the flipped classroom model within PhD graduate programs, and identifying strategies for managing resource demands, is critical for enabling flipped learning within biomedical sciences.[3],[5] Results suggest it is feasible and acceptable to utilize pre-class videos created for a pharmacy course within a related PhD course. Specifically, graduate faculty spent minimal time preparing the videos for the PhD course and students perceived the pedagogical approach positively. These findings align with other research describing positive student perceptions of flipped learning[3],[9] and may be particularly pertinent amid the rapid transition to online learning during COVID.

At the time of video production in this study, free screen recording and hosting software were limited and all video editing was done by a trained instructional design team. Today, affordable microphones, screen recording technologies, and hosting platforms are widely available. Newer software enables the presenter to record and export small video segments, allowing frequently changing content to be modified without re-recording the entire video, minimizing the resources required for video editing. With newer technologies, the ability to create and utilize sustainable, transferable pre-class videos is more accessible to those with budget and time limitations.[6]

As others explore sharing pre-class videos between degree programs, it is important to note that numerous factors can impact the utility of technological interventions.[6],[10] Instructors should consider the alignment of videos with the intended learning objectives, the ability of students to learn independently from video materials, the degree to which the video content changes over time, and the availability of resources to create and host videos. Further, video creators can promote the sustainability of pre-class videos by not referencing current events, not referring to class assignments, and not using web links that may expire.[6]

Based on the success of this experience, the use of PharmD pre-class videos was expanded to additional PhD-level courses. This strategy has enabled instructors to use class time for more interactive and engaging learning experiences. For instructors without a professional degree (e.g., MD, PharmD), the videos also provided insight into the variable depths of topics addressed within professional and related PhD courses. Although not addressed in this study, video content related to healthcare practice may also be useful for those PhD students who secure faculty positions at pharmacy schools since faculty often teach in both the graduate and professional programs.

There are several limitations to this study. First, data are from a single course within a single institution, which restricted the generalizability. Second, the study did not include measures of learning, which would be an important next step for generating evidence about the effectiveness of this approach. Third, the sample was small; however, this is typical of doctoral courses and still provides important input into the feasibility of this strategy. Despite these limitations, this study serves as an important first step toward understanding how to leverage educational materials across degree programs.


  Conclusion Top


Although evidence supports the use of flipped learning, significant resources may be required to create pre-class learning materials. This study is a first step toward exploring how to leverage curriculum materials for flipped classrooms at schools offering multiple related degree programs. The design principles and tenets used to implement the course could be useful for other institutions.

Ethical approval

This study was reviewed and determined to be exempt by the University of North Carolina institutional review board. All methods were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank Carla Coste Sanchez for her support with data collection.

Financial support and sponsorship

Not applicable.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest .

Author contributions

JM led the design, analysis, and writing of the manuscript. JG contributed to design, writing and critical review of the manuscript. AA contributed to design, writing and critical review of the manuscript. AO contributed to design, writing, and critical review of the manuscript. MJ contributed to design and critical review of the manuscript. SH contributed to design and critical review of the manuscript.



 
  References Top

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Akçayır G, Akçayır M The flipped classroom: A review of its advantages and challenges. Comput Educ 2018;126:334-45.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Chen F, Lui AM, Martinelli SM A systematic review of the effectiveness of flipped classrooms in medical education. Med Educ 2017;51:585-97.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Schwartz TA Flipping the statistics classroom in nursing education. J Nurs Educ 2014;53:199-206.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Tune JD, Sturek M, Basile DP Flipped classroom model improves graduate student performance in cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal physiology. Adv Physiol Educ 2013;37:316-20.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Wanner T, Palmer E Personalising learning: Exploring student and teacher perceptions about flexible learning and assessment in a flipped university course. Comput Educ 2015;88:354-69.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Norman MK Twelve tips for reducing production time and increasing long-term usability of instructional video. Med Teach 2017;39:808-12.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Roth MT, Mumper RJ, Singleton SF, Lee CR, Rodgers PT, Cox WC, et al. A renaissance in pharmacy education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. NC Med J 2014;75:48-52.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Krathwohl DR A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy: An overview. Theory Into Practice 2002;41:212-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
McLaughlin JE, Roth MT, Glatt DM, Gharkholonarehe N, Davidson CA, Griffin LM, et al. The flipped classroom: A course redesign to foster learning and engagement in a health professions school. Acad Med 2014;89:236-43.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Ross SM, Morrison GR, Lowther DL Educational technology research past and present: Balancing rigor and relevance to impact school learning. Contemp Educ Technol 2010;1:7-35.  Back to cited text no. 10
    



 
 
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