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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May-August 2022
Volume 5 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 33-83

Online since Friday, September 9, 2022

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Medical student and faculty perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical education and personal well-being p. 33
Janet Cruz, Julia Devito, Cecilia Cheung, Aksheta Vasireddy, Mallory A Stuparich, Samar Nahas, Sadikah Behbehani
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_7_22  
Objective: This is a retrospective questionnaire study, which aims to highlight the effects COVID-19 has had on medical education and personal well-being on medical students and faculty. Materials and Methods: An email containing two questionnaire links, one for medical students and the other for clinical faculty, was sent to medical institutions in California. The medical student questionnaire consists of 18 questions, and the faculty questionnaire consists of 15 questions. Results: The total number of participants who responded was 213; 160 were medical students and 44 were faculty. Forty-seven percent of medical students believe that their medical education has been negatively affected by the pandemic, and 49% strongly agree that lack of in-person communication has negatively affected medical education. Fifty-two percent of faculty indicated that they strongly agree medical education at their institution, which has been negatively affected by the COVID-19 pandemic; 46% somewhat agree that lack of in-person communication has negatively affected clinical education. Conclusion: Both faculty and medical students reported a decline in the quality of medical education, satisfaction, competency, and personal well-being during the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing and institutions must adopt a virtual interactive curriculum to improve both education and mental health.
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Predictive value of veterinary student application data for assessing adjustment to year 1 of veterinary school p. 41
Samuel Karpen, Robert M Gogal, Steven D Holladay
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_6_22  
Background: The veterinary education literature warns of psychological distress among doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) students. Despite its impact on veterinary education, there is little research on predictors of DVM student wellbeing, as most researchers have focused on predictors of academic performance. Methods: We used best subset regression to examine the relationship between application variables and student’s self-reported first year well-being. Objective: To determine whether variables available in students’ applications to veterinary school predicted self-reported well-being in their first year. Results: Age, graduate record exam (GRE) score, pre-DVM grade point average (GPA), hometown population, and paid employment experience were all significant predictors of various facets for self-reported first year well-being and involvement among DVM students. Conclusions: The predictive value of these variables, while significant, was quite low; consequently, veterinary educators should not base policy decisions on this information alone. We hope that our model serves as a useful tool to predict which applicants may need additional wellness resources during their first year.
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Faculty perceptions on academic entitlement in graduate health professional students p. 46
Jill M Ellis, Theresa A Bacon-Baguley, Sango Otieno
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_11_22  
Objective: This descriptive study evaluates faculty perceptions of academic entitlement (AE) in graduate health professional students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey design was used. Demographic data and faculty perceptions on the prevalence of AE in physician assistant students using two validated surveys were collected. One survey assessed AE as a unidimensional construct, and the second used a two-factor scale to assess entitled expectations (EE) and externalized responsibility (ER). The EE subscale assessed student expectations of faculty, and the ER subscale pertained to student expectations of the educational system. Faculty were recruited via email. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: One hundred sixty-eight faculty participated in the survey. On the Academic Entitlement Questionnaire and EE subscale score, faculty perceived high AE. They did not agree as strongly with items on the ER subscale. The highest AE perceptions were related to grades, professor roles, course delivery format, exam preparation, exam accommodations, and student responsibility to make up missed work. Faculty reported lower AE levels related to group work, university resources availability, consumerism, and professor knowledge. Conclusions: The sample population was well representative of graduate health faculty based on gender, ethnicity, race, age, years of experience, and tenure in education. Faculty reported high levels of AE in physician assistant students. Understanding faculty perception of students’ AE is essential because it can influence educators’ ability to create an environment for effective learning. Faculty should self-reflect and establish teaching strategies to mitigate AE and promote student learning.
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Authentic pharmacotherapy case study enhances learning outcomes in pharmacology in preprofessional undergraduate students p. 53
Babasola Fateye, Adedipupo O King, Adegoke Adeniji
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_9_22  
Introduction: Professional health training curricula that integrate basic and clinical sciences are associated with improved learning outcomes. Authentic clinical case studies that capture the complexity of a typical patient are frequently used in clinical training programs to model to students how to integrate information across disciplines to justify management plans. The value of such authentic case studies in preclinical students is less studied. This study seeks to know (i) if preclinical students in a large midwestern liberal arts college would be interested in participating in an optional case study assignment and (ii) if participation is associated with improved learning outcomes in a third-year pharmacology course. Material and Methods: Demographics, motivation, and vocational experience were assessed by an online survey. Binary multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between participating in the voluntary case study and performance on case-related and noncase-related questions. Results: More than two-thirds of the students participated in the case study, and their decision was driven largely by interest and/or experience in a healthcare vocation. Completing the case study was associated with better performance on case-related multiple-choice questions on midterm exams (Wald’s χ2 = 2079; P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that there are potential benefits to using case studies in preclinical curricula to drive improved student outcomes by underscoring the link between prerequisite courses and clinical practice. It also proffers a potential tool for assessing the efficacy of case study interventions.
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A mixed-methods, validity informed evaluation of a virtual OSCE for undergraduate medicine clerkship p. 62
Giovanna Sirianni, Jenny S. H. Cho, David Rojas, Jana Lazor, Glendon Tait, Yuxin Tu, Joyce Nyhof-Young, Kulamakan Kulasegaram
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_3_22  
Background: Pandemic-related learning environment disruptions have threatened clinical skills development and assessment for medical students and prompted a shift to virtual objective structured clinical examinations (vOSCEs). This study explores the benefits/limitations of vOSCEs from the perspective of key stakeholders and makes recommendations for improving future vOSCEs. Materials and Methods: Using a mixed-methods, utilization-focused program evaluation, we looked at feasibility and implementation evidence that addresses content, response process, and feasibility as per Messick’s validity framework. The analysis of test data was reviewed to inform reliability, acceptability, and consequential validity. A 14-question online survey was sent to both students and faculty followed by stakeholder focus groups. Descriptive statistics were collected, and deidentified transcripts independently reviewed and analyzed via constant, comparative, and descriptive thematic analysis. Results: The survey results showed the vOSCE was a feasible option for assessing history-taking, clinical reasoning, and counseling skills. Limitations were related to assessing subtle aspects of communications skills, physical examination competencies, and technical disruptions. Beyond benefits and drawbacks, major qualitative themes included recommendations for faculty development, technology limitations, professionalism, and equity in the virtual environment. The reliability of the six vOSCE stations reached a satisfactory level with a G-coefficient of 0.51/0.53. Conclusions: The implementation of a virtual, summative clerkship OSCE demonstrated adequate validity evidence and feasibility. The key lessons learned relate to faculty development content and ensuring equity and academic integrity. Future study directions include examining the role of vOSCEs in the assessment of virtual care competencies and the larger role of OSCEs in the context of workplace-based assessment and competency-based medical education.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Successful use of pre-class videos from a pharmacy course for pre-class learning in a biomedical graduate course p. 72
Jacqueline E McLaughlin, Jessica Greene, Aaron C Anselmo, Amanda A Olsen, Michael Jay, Shawn Hingtgen
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_4_22  
Introduction: Although flipped learning has experienced significant uptake within pharmacy schools, its use within related doctoral graduate programs is not well described or understood. Materials and Methods: Thirteen pre-class videos originally created for a Doctor of Pharmacy class were implemented as pre-class learning for a related Doctor of Philosophy class. In the Fall 2018 and Fall 2019, students completed a survey about their experiences, and faculty provided narrative feedback about their experiences. Results: Pre-class videos were positively rated by students, with most agreeing that they “prepared me for the content or activities in the corresponding class” (n = 16, 94.1%). Most agreed that doctoral courses “taught in a classroom should offer pre-recorded lectures” (n = 13, 76.5%). No significant differences were found by year or gender. Faculty subsequently increased their use of pre-class videos. Conclusions: This study is a first step toward exploring strategies for leveraging curriculum materials in flipped classrooms at schools offering multiple degree programs.
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BRIEF REPORT Top

Creating a teaching technician team for support of veterinary student training laboratories p. 76
Erin D Malone, Abby L Brown
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_13_22  
Veterinary technicians play valuable roles in most veterinary colleges and have particular strengths in coaching new learners. We moved to a teaching technician ‘float team’ model to provide teaching support to core pre-clinical laboratories in our DVM (Doctor of Veterinary Medicine) curriculum. The teaching technician team model has enabled us to better utilize staff skill sets and training, created efficiencies and expanded support provided to core laboratory courses, provided skill development and advancement opportunities for team members, and improved our ability to recognize and mentor our teaching staff. This model also allowed us to effectively adjust to the rapidly changing structure and increased numbers of laboratories brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic without increasing numbers of staff involved in laboratory teaching.
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FACULTY DEVELOPMENT Top

Promoting growth mindset in occupational therapy education p. 80
Chelsey Edwards
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_12_22  
Occupational therapy education has seen an increase in rigor and scholarly expectations throughout the years as many programs transition to the doctoral level. Because of this, students continue to struggle with a fixed mindset of their perceived academic abilities. Increasing growth mindset in graduate occupational therapy students is described and further discussed in this article in order to facilitate the development of academically and emotionally prepared occupational therapy practitioners. Growth mindset examples are further described in congruence with the literature on student self-reports of what impacts their perceived ability of intelligence.
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