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  Most popular articles (Since April 06, 2018)

 
 
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METHODOLOGY
Survey research methods: A guide for creating post-stratification weights to correct for sample bias
Kenneth D Royal
January-June 2019, 2(1):48-50
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_8_19  
Nonrepresentative data pose one of the greatest validity threats in survey research. Samples that are underrepresented and/or overrepresented based on demographic subgroups can introduce bias that distorts both the accuracy and the inferences made about the results. This article discusses the concept of poststratification weighting, a post hoc statistical procedure used to correct for sampling bias in survey research studies. Procedural steps for calculating poststratification weights are presented, and an example involving a simulated cohort of students in a medical school is provided for demonstration purposes. SPSS statistical software coding is presented to help researchers get started with their own calculations of poststratification weights.
  11,929 1,049 14
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT
The Kubler-Ross change curve and the flipped classroom: Moving students past the pit of despair
Erin D Malone
July-December 2018, 1(2):36-40
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_26_18  
Change is hard. The flipped classroom, while a powerful and growing force in medical education, is a major change for many health professions' students. Instructors may avoid “flipping” due to anticipated student resistance and poor course evaluations. The business community has developed specific guidelines on how to manage change using the Kubler-Ross death and dying change curve. This article suggests the change curve and related management strategies can and should be applied to flipped classroom scenarios. Action steps are provided for each stage that can help students move from stress and frustration (“I can't learn this way”) to integrated learning as fast as possible, while simultaneously allowing the full advantages of the flipped classroom to be realized.
  8,604 615 4
The role of metacognition in teaching clinical reasoning: Theory to practice
Ken Kosior, Tracy Wall, Sarah Ferrero
July-December 2019, 2(2):108-114
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_14_19  
The ability to think critically in an uncertain and complex health-care environment is a paramount skill needed for health profession students to transition to clinical practice. Experts and educators in health profession education have unintentionally created confusion regarding operationalizing critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and clinical decision-making. In the purest form, health profession educators are referencing the cognitive abilities of a clinician to transfer thinking skills from an academic to a clinical setting. The problem with teaching clinical reasoning in health professions is that the ability to transfer knowledge and skill to patient care is often inefficient. Metacognitive awareness provides a theoretical and practical construct to make previously unconscious cognitive processes overt. The benefit of integrating and scaffolding pedagogical practices to emphasize explicit student knowledge and regulation of cognition may benefit health profession educators in teaching future clinicians how to handle cognitively complex problems. Making clinical reasoning overt through metacognitive awareness provides health profession educators a framework which helps to teach and assess cognitive strategies associated with clinical reasoning. Metacognitive awareness operationalizes a complex construct to allow a definitive way for health profession educators to instruct the cognitive system, resulting in enhanced clinical reasoning. Learning the components of metacognitive awareness is essential to a solid foundation for students and faculty. As students receive further instruction and feedback on cognitive strategies, the potential exists to improve metacognitive judgments. Case-based learning, simulated and standardized patient interactions, and experiential learning all provide pedagogical tools to promote metacognitive awareness in health profession students. Through serial assessment of metacognitive awareness, health profession educators may also gain valuable insight into how students develop cognitive strategies for future clinical reasoning. The increased ability to plan and evaluate cognitive processes may aid health profession students and educators in attaining more meaningful thinking for complex problem-solving in clinical practice.
  7,869 729 6
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Law enforcement education and training: A review of literature and critical analysis
Gilbert Singletary
January-June 2019, 2(1):10-18
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_10_19  
Background: Recent killings of unarmed Black males murdered on national television has given rise to the successful prosecution of law enforcement officers, as well as new inquiries into officer discretion when applying deadly force. However, few scholars have called into question the methods used to train law enforcement officers, and how academy training prepares law enforcement officers to engage Black males. This research sought to provide a conceptual and cognitive framework for understanding deadly encounters between law enforcement and Black males and provide evidence-based content and recommendations to law enforcement to improve curricula and officer training. Methodology: Using case study methodology, a conflict between a Black male and a law enforcement officer is examined. Results: The results of the study reveal that current law enforcement training and education do not adequately prepare officers with the psychological tools needed to navigate the adversarial relationship between Black males and members of law enforcement. A combination of past experiences and behavior cues elicit responses from both Black males and law enforcement officers that often result in deadly encounters. Conclusions: There is no standardized curriculum for police officers across the United States. The majority of law enforcement training programs focus on physical and tactical elements with strength and firearms training at the core. A robust training that prepares officers for what they will experience in the field is warranted.
  6,938 416 -
VIEWPOINTS
Reframing the lecture versus active learning debate: Suggestions for a new way forward
Todd Zakrajsek
January-June 2018, 1(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_14_18  
For nearly 1000 years, lecture has been the most frequently used teaching strategy in higher education. Over the past 20 years, there has been increasing pressure to stop lecturing and instead use more active and engaged teaching strategies. An unfortunate result of the attack on the lecture is that faculty members have resisted being told to completely abandon lecturing. This has critically slowed the adoption of more contemporary evidence-based teaching strategies that would likely have advanced student learning beyond where it is today. This article includes four key challenges regarding the “active learning versus lecture” debate. Issues presented address a better understanding of what is meant by “the lecture,” a better understanding of the empirical studies comparing active learning to lecturing, a challenge to the claim that students do not learn well from the lecture, and that the comparison of active learning to lecturing is not an appropriate comparison. The primary position of this paper is that the adoption of contemporary evidence-based strategies designed to advance student learning is much more likely to be accepted and adopted by faculty members if the “active learning versus lecture” position is reframed in favor of an integrated position of combining lecture strategies with more active and engaged learning strategies. This approach would also be more consistent with existing evidence on teaching for deep learning.
  6,144 742 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Detecting cross-cultural differential item functioning for increasing validity: An example from the American board of family medicine in-training examination
Xian Wu, Rongxiu Wu, Michael R Peabody, Thomas R O'Neill
January-June 2018, 1(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_12_18  
Background: The present study describes the process used to detect items for cross-cultural differential item functioning (cc-DIF) and attempts to understand cc-DIF by both statistical analysis and content review using a cultural lens. Methods: Data from the 2014 American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) In-Training Examination (ITE). Results: cc-DIF existed in ten items on the 2014 ABFM ITE and could not be eliminated over the residency program years. International medical school graduates were benefited by seven items, whereas the United States medical school graduates (USMGs) were benefited by three items. Discussion: Cultural specificities and differential content familiarity likely are the primary reasons for items exhibiting cc-DIF. Conclusions: Investigating cc-DIF is recommended for any examination involving multicultural groups. Further, items exhibiting cc-DIF offer opportunities for students to reflect on their implicit cultural differences that may ultimately affect how they practice medicine in a multicultural society.
  6,387 363 -
POLICY PEARLS
How to successfully implement competency-based medical education in India
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
July-December 2018, 1(2):61-63
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_20_18  
The ultimate goal of medical education is to train and prepare aspiring physicians to respond to the health needs of the general population. At present, the medical education system in India relies on a curriculum that is teacher centered and time oriented. Unfortunately, this approach has led to a decline in the competence in recent medical school graduates. A more promising alternative is competency-based medical education (CBME). The implementation of CBME in India could dramatically improve the medical education system and ultimately improve patient outcomes. This article discusses the steps necessary to successfully plan and implement CBME in Indian medical colleges.
  5,167 588 5
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
A survey of point-of-care ultrasound use in veterinary general practice
Teresa DeFrancesco, Kenneth Royal
July-December 2018, 1(2):50-54
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_21_18  
Background: The use of ultrasound (US) continues to expand in veterinary and human medicine. The purpose of this study was to assess the current practices and potential barriers to the use of US in veterinary small animal general practices. Methods: An electronic survey was administered to approximately 1000 veterinary practitioners in the Southeastern United States. A total of 296 veterinarians completed the survey. Results: Among respondents, 53% reported having an US unit in their practice and 45% reported performing USs more than five times weekly. The most common reasons for not having an US unit were prohibitive cost (27%) and lack of training (27%). In addition, 74% responded that US training for a new graduate was extremely or very important. Conclusions: This study is the first to document the common use of US in small animal general practices and highlights the need for instruction of basic US skills for veterinary students and small animal practitioners.
  4,848 442 1
SPECIAL REPORTS
Student american veterinary medical association duty hours guidelines
Stéphie-Anne C Duliepre, Ashika Seshadri, Sarah L Neuser, Alexander McFarland, Meggan M Gray, Erin Malone, Laura Nafe, Derrick Hall
January-June 2019, 2(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_11_19  
At the 2011 Student American Veterinary Medical Association (SAVMA) Symposium, the SAVMA House of Delegates officially endorsed its Duty Hours Guidelines. The purpose of the guidelines was to provide guidance to veterinary students at all SAVMA Chapters on appropriate duty hours during clinical rotations. A need to revisit the duty hour guidelines arose in 2018 as veterinary students throughout the United States expressed concerns with the applicability of some guidelines in their clinical years. To reflect the needs of all SAVMA Chapters, the guidelines were revised in light of current veterinary medical trends. Feedback was solicited from students and faculty at all 34 SAVMA Chapters with clinical programs via surveys and in person meetings. A total of 19 Chapters provided input that highlighted areas for improvement. Thus, SAVMA wishes to make clear the needs of veterinary students on their clinical rotations and provide revised duty hours guidelines. Although SAVMA does not have the regulatory authority to enforce compliance, the organization strongly encourages all AVMA-accredited institutions to both embrace and comply with the newly revised and recommended guidelines.
  4,945 306 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Comparison of a novel card game and conventional case-based studying for learning urologic differential diagnoses in veterinary radiology
Christopher P Ober
July-December 2018, 1(2):44-49
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_16_18  
Introduction: Generation of appropriate lists of differential diagnoses for various radiographic findings can be challenging for veterinary students and practicing veterinarians. Methods: In this randomized, controlled, experimental trial, an educational card game was developed to help students learn differential diagnoses associated with different radiographic renal appearances. Third-year veterinary students in an imaging class took a pretest and were then randomly assigned to either play the card game or study conventional radiographic cases to learn differential diagnoses. Participants in both groups then took a posttest and a 1-week follow-up test to assess their learning. Test performance was compared between students who played the game and those who studied radiographic cases. Results: On the immediate posttest, students who played the game scored higher than those who studied by conventional means (8.1 vs. 5.5 out of 10 possible points, P < 0.0001) and students who played the game also scored higher on the follow-up test (13.1 vs. 10.4 out of 20 possible points, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Educational gameplay may be more beneficial than conventional case study for learning differential diagnoses. However, the relatively narrow focus of the game used in this study will prevent it from replacing conventional learning for all applications (such as lesion identification).
  4,623 386 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Using a model board examination and a case study assessing clinical reasoning to evaluate curricular change
Margaret V Root Kustritz, Aaron Rendahl, Laura K Molgaard, Erin Malone
January-June 2018, 1(1):11-18
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_2_18  
Background: This study compared student ability to integrate basic science and clinical information before and after implementing a curriculum revision that introduced a problem-oriented case approach as required coursework. Materials and Methods: Student knowledge and competence were assessed just before entry into clinical training by completion of 100 multiple-choice questions mirroring the breadth and type of questions on the national licensing examination (Part I) and by completion of 10 cases to discern clinical decision-making (Part II). Scores from students from the classes of 2015 and 2016 (previous curriculum) were compared to those from students from the classes of 2017 and 2018 (current curriculum). Results: Part I scores were not significantly different between any classes in the previous and current curriculum. Part II scores for 3rd-year students in the current curriculum were higher than those for comparable students in the past 2 years of the previous curriculum. Mean scores for the class of 2016, the last year of the previous curriculum, were significantly lower than all other classes. Conclusion: Students benefit from measured and repetitive practice in clinical reasoning.
  4,537 405 1
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Interprofessional leadership development for health professions learners: A program and outcomes review
Madeline C Aulisio, Leslie N Woltenberg, Erika F Erlandson, Marianne E Lorensen
January-June 2019, 2(1):19-26
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_1_19  
Background: Interprofessional collaborative care has become a preferred model for patient-centered health care, and effective participation in interprofessional teams has emerged as a core expectation of all providers. In response to this change in the healthcare landscape, Leadership Legacy was designed as an extracurricular enrichment opportunity to complement the formal curriculum by enhancing participants' collaboration, leadership, and teamwork skills. This cohort-based interprofessional leadership development program for health profession learners was built on a foundation of leadership theory, specifically emotional intelligence, and the interprofessional education collaborative competencies. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study with a pre- and post-test mixed method design was used to determine changes in students' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge that resulted from participation in Leadership Legacy. Results: Results of the 2-year study indicate that participation in the program produced learners who reported statistically significant gains in knowledge of educational requirements and scope of practice of other healthcare professionals, satisfaction measures of the experience, interprofessional competencies, and attitudes toward healthcare team and team understanding measures. Conclusions: Together the elements of Leadership Legacy, when viewed through the lens of leadership theory, provide an opportunity whereby interprofessional learners engage in activities designed to increase emotional intelligence and stimulate social change. These same activities also enable future practitioners to develop skills directly related to critical leadership competencies such as conflict management and resolution, effective communication, feedback agility, and project management.
  4,271 386 1
Viral infectious diseases: Specialist perspectives on learning about diagnosis and differential diagnosis
Kieran Walsh
July-December 2018, 1(2):41-43
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_19_18  
Background: Making a diagnosis of infectious disease requires knowledge of the symptoms, signs, and diagnostic tests associated with that disease. Many healthcare professionals use online clinical decision support resources to help learn how to make a diagnosis. One common and popular resource is BMJ Best Practice. The purpose of this paper is to share educational themes that can be drawn from the BMJ Best Practice clinical decision support resource. Methods: Documentary research was conducted on the diagnostic approach sections of the top 10 most viewed infectious disease topics. Topics included HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), infectious mononucleosis, hepatitis C, dengue, hepatitis A, influenza, measles, avian influenza, and Ebola. Results: Seven key themes emerged as follows: Clinical features remain paramount in learning about the diagnosis of infectious disease and elicitation of risk factors (including travel history) are an important part of the clinical history. Diagnosis is important in and of itself but is also important as a step toward notification, public health surveillance, and infection control measures. The differential diagnosis and coinfection are important considerations when learning how to diagnose infectious diseases as is the precise phase or stage of the disease in question. Conclusions: Much of the medical education literature focuses on the instructional design within the resources, rather than the actual content within the resources. This article attempts to redress this gap in the literature by describing the results of a detailed analysis of the content.
  4,062 363 -
SPECIAL REPORTS
Ten years of experience with a veterinary credential responder course
Dianne Dunning, Barrett Slenning, Jimmy Tickel, David C Dorman
January-June 2019, 2(1):4-9
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_28_18  
Training of veterinary students to improve their ability to respond to disaster events that affect livestock and companion animals is an important facet of veterinary education. Just over 10 years ago, the North Carolina (NC) State University College of Veterinary Medicine worked collaboratively with the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service's Emergency Management Program and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, to develop a competency-based Veterinary Credential Responder (VCR) course. This special report reflects on this experience and provides a detailed description of the current VCR course. The 2-week VCR course combines lecture, online, experiential, and group exercises to meet entry-level federal credentialing requirements. Students gain a working knowledge of emergency management, emergency operation plans, and emergency support functions. Over 1000 veterinary students have received the VCR credential making them eligible to participate as deployable members of NC Veterinary Response Corps.
  4,115 300 2
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Serious gaming as an active method of learning applied antibiotherapy in swine veterinary medicine
Perle Emilie Zhitnitskiy
May-August 2020, 3(2):63-69
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_4_20  
Background: Serious games have been increasing in popularity within health sciences education. Games can improve learning by increasing students' engagement and by developing their analytical, critical thinking, and teamwork skills. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a board game to teach applied swine antibiotherapy to veterinary students in their clinical year. Methods: Students were quizzed pre- and postclass to evaluate their knowledge retention. An anonymous seven-question survey was given to the students at the end of class to assess their satisfaction with the board game. Results: Students' quiz scores increased by 1.34 points on average between the beginning and end of class (P = 0.03). Students unanimously enjoyed playing the board game and recommended that it continued to be used in the next iteration of the course. Discussion: Using serious gaming proved to be an enjoyable method of reviewing antibiotherapy and applying it to swine clinical cases in this population of veterinary students. Implementing serious gaming in health sciences education requires a time investment for preparation but provides a richer experience for students and faculty alike.
  4,091 185 1
POLICY PEARLS
Improving response rates for course and instructor evaluations using a global approach
Erin D Malone, Margaret V Root Kustritz, Laura K Molgaard
January-June 2018, 1(1):7-10
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_7_18  
Obtaining sufficient survey responses to make course and instructor evaluation results meaningful is a challenge in many, if not most, health professions training programs. This paper describes a series of policy changes that significantly improved data quality at one college of veterinary medicine located in the United States. The steps consisted of minimizing the number of items appearing on the instruments, providing students adequate time and space for completion, clearly explaining the purpose and value of the evaluations, simplifying data collection, collecting verbal feedback, and closing the loop with student participants by informing them of any changes that were made as a result of their feedback. The steps outlined in this model may be easily extended to other health professions programs that involve cohort models, multi-instructor courses and limited resources with respect to time and people.
  3,858 336 2
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Understanding veterinary students' intrinsic, extrinsic, and lifestyle values
Amy M Snyder, Kenneth D Royal
January-June 2019, 2(1):27-33
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_4_19  
Introduction: Workplace values are a significant factor in facilitating successful transitions from the classroom to the workforce and in the career development process. Furthermore, employees whose value system aligns with that of their coworkers and leaders report higher rates of job satisfaction. This study sought to determine what current doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) students' value with respect to intrinsic, extrinsic, and lifestyle factors. Methods: A modified version of the work values checklist was administered to 100 3rd-year students at a large veterinary school located in the United States. Results: The three values rated most important among participants were “Have fun in your life and at work,” “Feel respected for your work,” and “Gain a sense of achievement.” The three values rated least important were “Be involved in politics,” “Compete with others,” and “Live abroad.” Conclusion: Overall, intrinsic and lifestyle values appear to play a larger role in DVM students' workplace preferences than extrinsic values. Researchers are encouraged to replicate this study at other institutions to determine the extent to which findings from this study are generalizable across the veterinary medical profession.
  3,865 310 1
FACULTY DEVELOPMENT
Forty-five common rater errors in medical and health professions education
Kenneth D Royal
July-December 2018, 1(2):33-35
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_27_18  
Minimizing the influence of rater errors is a persistent and considerable challenge for educators in the medical and health professions. This article presents a list of 45 common rater errors that assessors and evaluators should be cognizant of while rating performance assessments. Readers are encouraged to examine each rater error type, reflect on the extent to which s/he has previously committed each error, and identify strategies for mitigating and preventing errors in future performance assessment scenarios.
  3,659 396 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
How common are experimental designs in medical education? Findings from a bibliometric analysis of recent dissertations and theses
Kenneth D Royal, Jason C.B. Rinaldo
January-June 2018, 1(1):28-30
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_5_18  
Background: There has been a recent influx of researchers in the field of medical education coming from medical and health science backgrounds. Researchers from health fields often misunderstand that studies involving experimental designs are relatively rare throughout educational research. Experts in education research note that experimental designs largely are incompatible with educational studies due to various contextual, legal, and ethical issues. Purpose: We sought to investigate the frequency with which experimental designs have been utilized in recent medical education dissertations and theses. Methods: A bibliometric analysis of dissertations and theses completed in the field of medical education between 2011 and 2016. Results: Fewer than 10% of doctoral dissertations and master's theses involved some type of experimental design. Only 6.12% of all dissertation and master's projects involved randomized experiments. Conclusions: Randomized experiments occur only slightly more frequently in medical education than other educational fields.
  3,748 301 1
VIEWPOINTS
Technology, innovation, and progress in testing: Eight barriers to change
David Foster
January-June 2018, 1(1):4-6
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_9_18  
This “Perspectives” article involves the reflections of Dr. David Foster based on his nearly 40-year working experience in the assessment arena. Foster argues that, despite many innovative technology solutions, the assessment field has failed to introduce technology in creative, effective ways. This is evidenced by the fact that most modern assessments used in the high-stakes testing industry involve paper-and-pencil tests administered on computers. Foster identifies eight common reasons (and excuses) used to reject change and accept the status quo, thereby forcing the assessment field to live in the past.
  3,651 378 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The resurgence of leprosy in India: Findings from a survey assessing medical professionals' knowledge and preparedness
Pugazhenthan Thangaraju, Sajitha Venkatesan, T Tamil Selvan, Elavarasan Sivshanmugam, MK Showkath Ali
January-June 2018, 1(1):24-27
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_3_18  
Background: Sufficient knowledge regarding presentation, clinical features, and further workup of leprosy, a stigmatized disease, is essential for physicians and other health professionals to effectively control the disease. This study aimed to investigate the current knowledge of leprosy among health professionals in India. Materials and Methods: An online survey was administered to 200 health-care professionals. Results: One hundred and thirteen health professionals representing various sectors completed the survey. Only 24% of participants correctly answered items regarding the treatment of mild reactions of Type 1 reversal reaction and Type 2 erythema nodosum leprosum. In addition, only 38% of participants correctly answered an image-based item depicting a blister calendar pack used for treatment. Conclusion: The survey results indicate that medical professionals need more educational training to combat this once declared “eliminated” disease.
  3,368 308 1
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Exploring the effects of authoring and answering peer-generated multiple-choice questions
Lysa Pam Posner, Regina Schoenfeld-Tacher, Mari-Wells Hedgpeth, Kenneth Royal
January-April 2020, 3(1):16-21
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_29_19  
Background: Many students believe that completing practice test questions improve their examination performance. This study was designed to investigate the effects of authoring and answering peer-generated multiple-choice questions. Methods: First-year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine students were voluntarily enrolled in the study. Each student was required to create at least three questions and encouraged to answer as many items as they wanted. Following the examination, participating students were required to complete a questionnaire characterizing the usefulness and enjoyability of the program. Results: A total of 94/101 students utilized the PeerWise program. Students believed that developing peer-generated questions improve their understanding of the material (79% agreed or strongly agreed). Fifty-six percent of students said that they would use peer-generated questions as a study tool if no extra credit was associated with it (agree or strongly agree); however, none of them used the technique when not incentivized. Of the 290 questions generated, only 4% of the questions required a deep understanding of the content, whereas 62% required recall only. Conclusions: We conclude that students generally perceived the program to be useful, but questionable quality items may have potentially limited students' learning gains.
  3,386 279 -
SHORT RESEARCH REPORT
Building and validating a predictive model for DVM academic performance
Samuel C Karpen, Scott A Brown
July-December 2019, 2(2):55-58
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_20_19  
Background: Predicting success in the veterinary curriculum with admissions variables is a longstanding interest of veterinary faculty. As linear models have consistently outperformed experts' opinions when making quantitative estimates, integrating them into admissions could both improve the outcome and reduce the burden of the admissions process. Aims and Objectives: To build and test linear models for predicting first year grade point average (GPA) and practice readiness in the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) program. Materials and Methods: The authors built and validated models for predicting first year GPA and clinical rotation performance using data from the college's application management system and internal records. Lasso regression was used to select the subset of variables that best predicted both first year GPA and clinical faculty's ratings of practice readiness. Results: Validated models indicated no application variables reliably predicted practice readiness. Only total undergraduate GPA, GRE verbal/quantitate score, reference letter positivity, and number of unexplained course withdrawals reliably predicted first year GPA. Conclusion: Selecting applicants who will be successful in the first year of the veterinary curriculum is an important objective, particularly given the challenges many students face during this part of the veterinary curriculum. The overarching goal of a veterinary curriculum, however, is to produce practice ready veterinarians, thus additional work must be done to improve our ability to identify applicants who will be poised for success upon graduation.
  3,343 282 1
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Creating measurable, practice-relevant day-1 competencies for swine veterinary education
Perle E Zhitnitskiy, Thomas W Molitor, Montserrat Torremorell, Laura K Molgaard
July-December 2019, 2(2):59-64
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_23_19  
Background: Veterinary education (VE) is increasingly transitioning toward a competency-based model with a focus on educational outcomes. The American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges published a framework of competencybased veterinary education (CBVE) to provide guidance to veterinary educators in creating a curriculum that would graduate proficient veterinarians, capable of carrying out activities central to the profession, without supervision. Aims and Objectives: Swine Faculty at a Midwest Institution aimed to create a subset of competencies anchored in the CBVE framework for graduates aspiring to practice swine medicine. Methods: Using the Delphi process and the collaboration of swine practitioners and educators around the country, the team developed a list of 109 competencies divided into nine domains and three levels of expertise. Results: The list was designed as an online, interactive, savable tool, available at http://z.umn.edu/SwineCompetencies. Conclusion: Following this work, the swine faculty plans to evaluate the swine curriculum at the college level with the intent to incorporate additional opportunities for the students to practice and be assessed on the activities listed.
  3,288 276 -
Text mining as a method for examining the alignment between educational outcomes and the workforce needs
Jacqueline E McLaughlin, Carly Lupton-Smith, Michael D Wolcott
July-December 2018, 1(2):55-60
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_25_18  
Introduction: Job descriptions outline competencies employers consider requisite for success and can be used to inform curriculum design. This paper demonstrates the use of text mining to determine the extent to which key educational outcomes align with job descriptions. Methods: Eighty pharmacist job descriptions containing a total of 12,064 words were text mined using the “bag of words” method. Results: A majority of the 20 most frequent job description words were also present in the pharmacy accreditation standards and American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy entrustable professional activity statements. However, several top 20 words were not, including customer, dispense, department and company. Chi-squared tests revealed text differences between community and health-system pharmacy, including patient, manage, information, and customer, which may have implications for pharmacy schools preparing students for various practice settings. Conclusion: The methodology described here provides a feasible and efficient approach to analyzing current workforce expectations and mapping them to educational outcomes.
  3,273 288 1